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The purpose of the digestive system is to separate nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins and water) from the rest of the food that a person ate and store waste materials until they are thrown off. The probing system consists of the esophagus, the stomach, and the small and intestine, writes dr. Morana Brkljačić .

Anatomic, the intestines are divided into two main parts: a thin gut, consisting of duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and a colon, which is divided into a cecum (a blind gut), a column (parts which are ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon), rectum and anal channel. The small intestine is about an average of about 7 meters in length, while the colon is about 1.5 meters long. Certain parts of the intestine differ in their structure and function as they perform.

Thin bowel consists of three parts:

duodenum (duodenum), about 30 cm in length (corresponding to a width of twelve thumbs, from which the name comes from) into which the digestive juices of the liver and pancreas are poured, and bile from the gallbladder;
jeunum, 2-8 m long, in which the decomposition of food is completed. The Latin word jejunum according to which the gut has been named is hungry because this gut is mostly empty for most of the time;
ileum, about 4 m in length, in which the disintegrated food ingredients are absorbed into the blood.

The small intestine is part of the digestive system in which digested food is completely processed and converted into a liquid and goes into the blood. From the fifth year of life onwards, the small intestine is five to six meters long. Food from the stomach continues its digestion in the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) and goes from the small intestine to the colon. Through the thin gut, the food travels by wavy clamping of the muscles called peristalsis. Probe protein in peptides and amino acids generally occurs in the stomach, but sometimes in the small intestine. In this part of the digestive tube, most chemical reactions occur. Namely, the peptides are degraded into amino acids, lipids (fat) into fatty acids and glycerol, while carbohydrates break down into simpler sugars, for example glucose.

The colon has four parts: colon ascendens, transverse (colon transversus), colon descendens, and sigmoid (colon sigmoideum), which continue in the shape of an arc. The large intestine lies first to the right of the small intestine, and then successively superior and anterior to it, to the left of it, and finally underneath it. The intestine (intestinum crassum) is a part of the digestive tract that continues on the small intestine tenue).

In the thick gut, the remains of digested food are finished, and the remains of water are harvested and stored by the remains of digested foods that rot.

At the site where the intestine tenue, or more precisely the intestinal intestine (lat. Ileum), enters the body, Bauchini’s valve (latent valve ileocecalis) is located, which, like a valve, prevents the return of digested content back from the thick to the small intestine. At the bottom of the appendix there is a scarlet (lat appendix vermiformis), which is often mistakenly called a blotchy.

Bowel disease

Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine, which sometimes affects the colon. Enteritis, which resembles salmonellosis or shigellosis, affects all age groups, but it seems that the greatest incidence is between 1 and 5 years of age. One of the main symptoms is diarrhea (diarrhea) which is watery and sometimes bleeding. Leukocytes are seen in colored stools. The temperature can be from 38 to 40 ˚C with recurrent or intermittent course, with frequent abdominal pain and hepatosplenomegaly – enlarged liver and spleen. The infection can also be presented as subcutaneous bacterial endocarditis, septic arthritis, meningitis or hotspecific cause. The most common causes of enteritis are Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Shigella, Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica). Radiation enteritis is also known as a consequence of radiation therapy (radiation enteritis).

Symptoms of enteritis can develop within a few hours to a few days after infection. Symptoms may include: diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps and pain, bleeding when the mucous membrane is released from the rectum. Symptoms such as dry mouth, inflamed eyes, lack of tears, reduced urine volume (less wet), dark urine, frequent tiredness may also occur with these symptoms. In very young children, newborns, the fountains may also appear (a soft head on the top of the head) as a sign of dehydration.

Crohn’s infectious diseases or diseases of dirty hands are usually illnesses of low hygienic standard, with food poisoning, which is often present in the civilized world. The causative agent or its toxins enter the body through the mouth, multiply in the intestine, damage the mucous membrane of the intestine and is most often secreted by digestion.

Cauliflowers or their products cause inflammation that can affect the entire digestive system (gastroenterocolitis) or only some of its parts (gastroenteritis, enteritis, enterocolitis, colitis). The clinical picture of intestinal infectious diseases is most often characterized by symptoms of the digestive system, among which is diarrhea. Other (general) symptoms are fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, thirst, dry mucous membranes and symptoms of kidney failure (dehydration!). In chronic diseases, frequent symptoms are the result of a disorder of absorption of vitamins, proteins and others for the body of important substances (anemia, weight loss, avitaminosis, etc.).

General symptoms are found only in acute infectious diarrhea that lasts for a few days, and are most pronounced at the onset of the disease. Local, intestinal symptoms occur in both acute and chronic conditions, and the most common are diarrhea, abdominal pain and sometimes vomiting. These symptoms include acute gastroenteritis (vomiting with abundant watery chairs with cramps in the abdomen), acute enterocolitis (scarlet-fever, mucous cysts with cramps in the abdominal cramp) and acute colitis or dysentery syndrome (scarce, pulpy stools with admixtures mucus and blood with cramps in the abdomen).

Necrotizing enterocolitis is an acquired disease, preferably infants or sick children, characterized by necrosis of the intestinal mucosa or even deeper parts of the wall. Symptoms and symptoms are food intolerance, lethargy, temperature extremity, ileus, nausea, vomiting, haematohesia, reducing substances in the stool, apnea and sometimes sepsis signs. The diagnosis is set clinically and confirms the image search. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes nasogastric suction, parenteral fluid administration, complete parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, isolation in cases of infection, and often surgery.

Obstruction of the intestine

Mechanical bowel obstruction implies a significant reduction or complete delay in the passage of intestinal contents. Symptoms are cramping pain, vomiting, constipation and absence of winds. Diagnosis is established clinically, and confirms radiologically. It is treated with fluid replacement, fluid replacement, nasogastric suction and in most cases surgical. Mechanical bowel obstruction is divided into small bowel obstruction (including the duodenum) and obstruction of the colon. Obstruction may be complete or partial.

About 85 percent of partial obstructions are resolved conservatively, while about 85 percent of total obstructions are resolved surgically. Overall, the most common cause of mechanical obstruction is adhesions, hernias (hernias) and tumors. Other causes include diverticulitis, foreign bodies (including gallstones), volvulus (intestinal injection on their own mesenter), invagination (injection of one segment of the gut into the other like a telescope, some parts of the bowel are affected differently.

Malignant tumors (most commonly advanced primary colorectal cancer) are the most common cause of obstruction of the colon (60 to 70 percent), while small bowel obstruction is caused by malignant tumors spreading from the stomach, pancreas. Incarcerated hernias are also common causes of intestinal obstruction. The reason is about 10 percent of all small bowel obstruction, among which are the intestinal obstruction of the inguinal and femoral hernia, and then the ventral and umbilical cervix.

Colon cancer

Colorectal cancer (colorectal carcinoma) presents a serious health problem in the western countries. It can begin in its initial section, which continues on the small intestine (cecum), in the main part of the colon, or in the lower part of the colon (rectum). The disease usually begins gradually and in most cases clinically manifests signs of bowel function disorders (constipation, diarrhea, changes in stool thickness), blood and / or mucus in the stool, and general weakness, loss of body weight and anemia (anemia).

A series of risk factors is associated with this disease. One of these factors is the colon polyps (tissue growths that grow from the mucous membrane of the colon to the cavity of the intestine), whose number increases with age, certainly increase the risk, but it has not yet been established how useful the removal of polyps is to reduce the incidence of the disease. An extremely important hereditary factor is the so-called. familial (family) polyposis. Familial nepoliopulmonary colon carcinoma occurs in 1-5% of patients. Consumption of alcohol certainly increases the risk, as well as the elderly, reduced follicle intake, fat-rich diet and cholesterol, and poor fibers; inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease and even greater likelihood of ulcerative colitis. It is believed that regular physical activity reduces the risk.

Symptoms of colon cancer

Initially, the disease has no symptoms. Symptomatic patients mostly describe abdominal pain, change in the frequency or shape of the stool (diarrhea / constipation), and the occurrence of blood in the stool. So it should be very careful when you see fresh blood traces in the chair (hematochesis) or if your chair is black like tar (melena). Poorness, anemia, feeling of incomplete bowel discharge, and unexplained loss of body weight less frequently. The pain in the abdomen is due to the partial obstruction of the passage of intestinal contents, the spread of the tumor into the abdomen or the cracking of the mucous membrane of the bowel.

False cramps with a tendency to stool (tensies) can affect the muscles of the pelvis; tumor mass can bind the ischemic or opturatory nerve and cause neurological pain syndrome. In early stages of colorectal cancer, patients may be symptomless or may complain about vague pains in the abdomen and tenderness, which can be attributed to the gall bladder or peptic ulcer. There are also minor changes in the work of the gut, with or without rectal bleeding, which is often rejected and / or attributed to hemorrhoids or other benign disorders.

Cancer on the left side of the colon mainly causes intermittent constipation and diarrhea, abdominal pain and obstruction symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. Cancer on the right side of the collar creates vague pain in the abdomen, which differs from the cramping pains caused by obstructive lesions on the left. Anemia resulting from chronic blood loss, weakness, weight loss and abdominal mass can also be traced to the right side of the colon carcinoma. Symptoms of cancer of the rectum may include changes in the intestine, a feeling of incomplete discharge of the stool, bleeding and cramps.

Fresh blood on the surface of the stool (hematochesis) is more commonly found in rectal carcinoma (rectum is the end of the colon). Anemia due to iron deficiency is the consequence of blood loss and is usually found in advanced disease. Changes in intestinal movements are more frequent in the left side of the carcinoma. Other possible symptoms include abdominal distension (abdominal distension), nausea, vomiting and fatigue.

Diagnosis of colon cancer

Colon cancer may be detected on the basis of symptoms or in persons without symptoms during routine examinations and tests. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FBOT) can detect small amounts of blood that can not be seen by looking at the chair with a naked eye. You can do such a test at the public health institutes of your cities. If traces of blood are detected, further tests are required. In order not to miss the malignancy, it is important to point out that any colorectal bleeding is considered cancerous until proven otherwise.

Digitorectal examination – the doctor introduces the index finger into the collar of the colon, and checks for the presence of abnormal tissue, irregularities and the presence of blood in the stool.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy – Search uses a flexible finger-thickness sigmoidoscope. It is placed in the lower part of the colon through the anus (anus). The doctor moves the tube with the control device and observes the image of the inside of the intestine that is supplied with optical fibers. Due to the insufficient length of the instrument, this search can only be viewed with half of the colon. The search is embarrassing, but not painful. Before the search, it is necessary to carry out a special diet and cleansing treatment for several days.

Colonoscopy is a diagnostic method that provides direct insight into the condition of the mucous membrane, or the inside of the colon using a flexible fiber optic instrument. The colonoscope is a longer version of the sigmoidoscope.

Most colon cancer is found in the cavity of the intestine, so the colonoscopy is an excellent search for symptomatic individuals because it provides an overview of the entire colon, a biopsy (taking tissue fragments for analysis) of suspicious masses and polyps, detection of synchronous cancers and removal of polyps. In 5-10% of patients, a tumor can not be detected by a colonoscopy due to technical reasons (folded intestine, poor preparation of the patient), and in this case a X-ray scan can be performed using barium pulp. It is important to examine the entire colon to exclude the presence of syncope. If the tumor prevents examination of the entire intestine, the colonoscopy is repeated after surgery.

An overview of computerized tomography (CT) gives a detailed insight into the entire abdominal cavity of the patient, so that we can identify, confirm or deny colon cancer, and also provide additional information, such as enlargement of the lymph nodes, expansion into the surrounding and distant organs.


There are three forms of standard treatment for colon cancer: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.

Surgery is the most common form of treatment for all stages of the cancer. The possibilities are the following; Local excision – if cancer is detected at an early stage, the doctor can remove it without opening the abdominal wall. Instead, cancer can be removed through the inside of the bowel. If the cancer is found in the polyps, the removal operation is called polypectomy. Resection – if cancer is higher, the doctor carries out colectomy (removal of cancer and a certain part of surrounding healthy tissue). The doctor can then perform anastomosis (sealing healthy parts of the colon). The surgeon usually removes the lymph nodes around the colon that the pathologist later examines under a microscope to check for tumor cells.

Resection and colostomy – if the doctor can not seal the two ends of the bowel after removal of the tumor, an opening (stoma) is made on the surface of the body to remove the intestinal contents. This procedure is called colostomy. Stoma is also called anus praeter naturalis (lat = anus before natural). Sometimes the stoma serves only until the hose is healed. If a doctor needs to remove the whole lower part of the colon, colostomy is often permanent. Even if the doctor removes the entire visible tumor mass, after surgery, chemotherapy is sometimes recommended in order to destroy the remaining carcinoma cells. Treatment after a surgical procedure with the goal of increasing the possibility of complete healing is called adjuvant therapy.

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs against cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be taken over the mouth, venous route or injection into the muscle. All three forms are systemic therapy because the drug enters the blood and acts throughout the body.

Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill tumor cells and reduce tumor mass. The external radiation is distinguished (use of the apparatus outside the body) and internal radiation (setting radiation sources, radioisotopes, into the body cavities through plastic tubes). Colon cancer can be treated with external radiation. After the therapy, a blood test is performed to measure the level of the carcinoma-like antigen (CEA) together with other searches in order to determine the potential recurrent carcinoma.

Biological therapy is a treatment that stimulates the immune system in the fight against cancer. Body or laboratory products are used to reinforce, direct or restore physical defense mechanisms. Biological therapy is sometimes called a biological response modifier (BRM) or immunotherapy. Scientists are intensively investigating biological therapy (source:

The American Cancer Society recommends that asymptomatic patients carry out a digitally overview each year after age 40, and after the age of 50, test for occult blood in the stool each year and flexible sigmoidoscopy every 3-5 years. (source: Colonoscopic examination in almost 95 percent of cases reveals even small changes in the large intestine.

Healthy food and exercise are certainly a prevention of the development of numerous diseases, and hence diseases of the gut. Fruits and vegetables, fish and wine “graze” guts. Some studies have shown that the fish is beneficial for digestion, and its regular consumption reduces the risk of colon cancer, while fibers and certain antioxidants, vitamins, minerals from fruits and vegetables have a very good effect on bowel health.

Garlic, garlic, leeks, scallops and ginger contain sulfur compounds that protect against carcinogenic changes in the colon, breast, and lungs. What should be avoided, or less and less frequently consumed are: red meat and meat prepared at high temperatures or with grills. When preparing meat at high temperatures, it creates carcinogenic compounds that are extremely dangerous to our intestines.